Brachytherapy, also known as internal radiation therapy, is a radiation therapy technique where the radioactive source is directly implanted in contact with the area to be treated. Brachytherapy is mostly used to treat cervical, endometrial, prostate, breast, ENT, and skin cancers.

Brachytherapy is a radiotherapy technique in which radioactive sources are implanted directly in contact with the solid tumor to be treated.. These radioactive substances emit radiation that kills cancer cells, while avoiding side effects because the irradiation takes place very close to the tumor without passing through normal tissues (especially the skin). The first clinical applications of brachytherapy were described in 1901 and only radium was used for the treatment of gynecological tumors (uterus). Since then, other radioactive substances, such as iodine 125, iridium 192, cobalt 60 and cesium 137, have been developed. The alpha and beta radiation emitted by these substances are short-wave particles that can deliver a high dose of radioactivity in a small volume (i.e. just the tumor and not the surrounding tissues). There are different brachytherapy techniques in function of the implantation method (intracavitary or interstitial) and the dose rate (low-dose rate, pulsed-dose rate, high-dose rate). The choice of technique depends mainly on the tumor location and is discussed in a multidisciplinary team meeting. The implantation of the radioactive sources may require general anesthesia, like done for other surgical procedures. The treatment will be performed in one or more sessions.. Brachytherapy is mainly used for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer,ENT cancer, andskin cancer.